5 Components Health Related Fitness

Aerobic exercise (also known as cardiovascular exercise)
Resistance exercise (
also known as weight training)
Stretching exercise (
also known as static exercise
Balance Training
Core Stability

Do not focus on only one component to the exclusion of the others.
For instance, if you are feeling emotional stress, or your muscles are sore or tight from a previous workout, you may want to incorporate more stretching exercises for the next few days.

For aerobic activity the recommended heart rate is between 60-80% of the maximum heart rate for your age. The maximum heart rate is calculated by subtracting your age from 220

The maximum heart rate is calculated by subtracting your age from 220

For instance if you are 50 years old, your maximum heart rate is 220-50 = 170. When you exercise between 60-80% of your maximum heart rate, your heart rate on your heart rate monitor should be between 102 and 144 beats per minute.

Do not attempt to exercise any higher than 60-80% of your maximum heart rate. If you notice that your heart rate is higher then cut back on the intensity of your exercise.

Depending on your weight loss goals, aerobic exercise varies from up to five times a week for weight loss and three times a week to maintain a healthy weight.

To reduce monotony yet include the 5 components health related fitness programs, I usually recommend a varied regimen of ‘two days on one day off’. For instance Monday-Tuesday then Wednesday off; Thursday-Friday then Saturday off; Sunday-Monday then Tuesday off. Got the picture? Let’s move on!

RESISTANCE TRAINING is exercise that leads to an increase in the muscle size and mass. When you increase muscle mass you burn calories faster even in between work outs!

Most health related fitness guidelines recommend incorporating resistance training at least two to three times a week.  It is important not to work out the same muscle groups two days in a row. For example on one day work out the upper body (this may include arms, chest and upper back) and then the next time the lower body (lower back, thighs and legs). Abdominal exercises are one group of resistance exercises that can be done daily although this depends on their intensity. If you have any questions about incorporating daily ‘ab exercises’ be sure to check with a personal trainer.

If you have a gym membership, weight machines are a great tool for reaching 5 components health related fitness goals.. You can also do resistance training at home with bar bells, kettle bells, resistance bands or even using your own body weight like abdominal crunches, lunges, squats and push-ups. You can get really creative if you are working out at home- you can use soup cans, kegs of water etc

A reasonable ratio would be 60% aerobic exercise, 40% resistance training, stretching, balance, and core stability.  Depending on your level of physical fitness and overall fitness goals, you may vary that ratio. Before beginning a 5 components health related fitness program, be certain to consult your primary care physician as with all fitness programs.

Most aerobic and strength training exercises cause the muscles to contract and stiffen. This can affect overall flexibility. Stretching improves the range of motion of your joints and the posture. It is very important to include stretching exercises before and after a workout. Most personal trainers and exercise physiologists recommend a brief warm up before aerobic exercise in order prevent damage to the muscles and the ligaments.


The core muscles are the muscles located in your abdomen, back and pelvis and are responsible for your posture. Maintaining a strong core becomes very important as we begin to age because it helps to keep the posture upright preventing kyphosis which is a condition in which the spine begins to curve.Core exercises also help to maintain balance and reduce the potential for falls especially in the elderly. Examples of core training would include back and abdominal strengthening exercises.

5 components health related fitness includes balance training. As we age, we may begin to lose our balance and become at risk for falls and fractures resulting from those falls.

Dr. Eno

Born in London and raised in Nigeria,
Dr. Eno Nsima-Obot is a board certified Internal Medicine Physician, with over 20 years of experience in the health & wellness industry. She graduated from medical school in 1987 with several awards in Obstetrics & Gynecology, Clinical Pharmacology and General Surgery. She is passionate about placing a human touch to healthcare and was the recipient for the quarterly award for compassion when she worked as a primary care physician with a large multi-specialty medical group in Chicago. As a professional life coach, Dr. Eno is committed to helping woman living with chronic illnesses such as type 2 diabetes achieve optimal health and wellbeing, so that they are able to experience a more wholesome life. She is also an author of a book on diabetes, designed to educate people about diabetes in an easy to understand way. To download a free preview of her book, click here.